One of the most closely followed elections worldwide this year is the presidential race in the USA.
The nomination race is still continuing in the Democratic Party. According to recent polls, candidates for a candidate include ex-Vice-President Joe Biden, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, Minnesota Senator Amy Klobuchar, Indiana Bend's Mayor Pete Buttigieg and businessman Tom Steyer.
The party's first preselection will be in Iowa in early February. It is expected that the candidate will be clarified by mid-March.
In the Republican Party, President Donald Trump is once again a candidate.
We have compiled the curiosities about the presidential election process that will last until November in the USA
When will the elections be held in the USA?
Voters in the U.S. will be held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020.
On the same day, votes will be cast for the entire 435-seat House of Representatives.
In addition, voters will vote in 33 of the Senate's 100 seats.
Governors and state councils will be held in many states.
Who is a candidate?
Politics in the USA has been dominated by two large parties for many years.
The Democratic Party represents modern liberalism. The party generally advocates that the state should undertake public services, provide education for free or for a reasonable fee, establish a general health insurance system for all, implement social programs, take measures to protect the environment and strengthen trade unions.
The last Democratic president in the White House was Barack Obama, who won the election in 2008 and 2012.
In the 2016 elections, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton won the Democrats nomination. Although Clinton received more votes across the country, he managed to become the president by winning more delegates at the Trump Electoral Board.
Democratic Party's prominent candidates this year, according to their rankings in the opinion polls so far, are as follows:
Former Vice President Joe BidenVermont Senator Bernie SandersMassachusetts Senator Elizabeth WarrenMinnesota Senator Amy KlobucharPete Buttigieg, Mayor of South Bend, IndianaBusinessman Tom Steyer
The Republican Party represents what is called American conservatism. This view advocates minimizing the role of the state in the economy and social life, reducing taxes, free market capitalism, the right to bear arms, closing trade unions and introducing much more restrictive regulations on issues such as migration and abortion.
Apart from these two main parties, there are also very small political formations, such as Greens and Independents, that have made their own candidates.
Currently, the process of determining the candidates of the parties continues. Since there is no regulation in the US Constitution on how to hold the preliminary elections, its procedures are determined by state laws.
Preliminary elections are held in two different types. The first is party meetings at the state level ("caucus"). No votes are cast here. Participants stop and go to the region allocated to the island they support in the areas where the meetings are held and it is decided which candidate received the most support as a result of the census.
The second is the preliminary elections ("primaries"). This method is used in most of the states and voting process is carried out by the state administration rather than parties.
The name, which received the support of the highest number of delegates as a result of the pre-elections, becomes the party's candidate for president. Presidential candidates are officially announced at the major congresses of the parties.
The Republican National Committee, the central executive board of the Republican Party, decided to support Trump. Thereupon, pre-elections were canceled in some states. Trump is expected to be a candidate again.
The main nomination race takes place in the Democratic Party. The first preliminary election will be held on Monday, February 3, in the state of Iowa meeting method.
Iowa pre-election is a small state, but it is considered important because it gives morale to the winning island and brings it to the fore as it is the place where the first election is held.
What is Super Tuesday?
Super Tuesday represents one of the most important bends of the presidential nomination race.
Today, it is the date of preselection in the largest number of states.
Usually, after the results of Super Tuesday, it is also clear which name will win the party's nomination, especially in contentious races.
This year, Super Tuesday is on March 3rd. After this date, the Democratic Party's presidential candidate is expected to be largely clear.
How long will the pre-elections last?
Presidential elections in the US, which started in February, are expected to be completed in June.
However, it is estimated that the candidate will be announced in mid-March, especially with Super Tuesday and other preliminary elections in the next two weeks.
There is no time limit for the presidential election campaign in the USA. However, those who win the party nomination generally run a campaign for around 18 months.
When will Trump's rival be determined?
The parties are announcing the presidential and vice-presidential candidates at the congress they organize in the summer months.
Democrat National Congress will be held between 13-16 July.
The Republican National Assembly will be held on 24-27 August.
After the official announcements, the president and vice-presidents of both parties will face four live discussions on television.
Three of these will be held among the candidates for the presidency and one among the vice-presidents. The first discussion of presidential candidates is scheduled for September 29 in Indiana. The date foreseen for the other two discussions is October.
The discussion date of the vice presidents is October 7, and the location is Utah.
How is the winner of the presidential election determined?
Unlike many systems in the world, the candidate with the highest number of votes in the US is not considered elected president.
In the USA, the president of the people chooses indirectly, not directly. Voters choose the delegates of each province in the Selection Committee, who will elect the president. The party with the most votes in a state is considered to have won all the delegates of that state.
The number of delegates of the states is also determined by their size. This causes states with a high population to play a more decisive role in the election of the president.
The top six states with the highest number of delegates are ranked in California, with 38 seats, Texas with 38, New York and Florida with 20, Illinois and Pennsylvania with 20.
There are 538 delegates in the Selection Committee, and in order to be elected president, it is necessary to win the election in the state corresponding to the number of 270 delegates.
In theory, it is envisaged that the Selection Committee will select the candidate with the highest vote in the public vote. However, the application does not work like that.
Although Democrat candidate Al Gore in 2000 and Democrat candidate Hillary Clinton in 2016 received more votes than their competitors in total, they could not be elected president because they could not provide the majority in the Selection Committee.
What do red, blue and contentious states mean?
Some states in the USA have been invariably winning candidates for the same party for many years. The states, which are the strongholds of a certain party, are known by the color of that party.
Idaho, Alaska and many southern states are called "red states" because they are the strongholds of the Republican Party.
The support of states in California, Illinois and the northeastern part of the country is known to the members of the Democratic Party and therefore "blue states".
Controversial states are defined as places that do not have any party's stronghold. In these states, according to candidates and campaigns, different parties can win, and therefore the presidential race mainly focuses on critical contentious states.
Ohio and Florida are among the most important and critical contentious states. In the 2020 election, Arizona, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin appear to be among the contested states.
How does the voting process work?
As with many other issues, voting procedures vary from state to state.
Many states allow early voting. Also, those who cannot go to the polls on election day for various reasons are also given the right to vote by mail.
On election day, it is necessary to go to the ballot box and vote for signature.
Each state carries out the counting itself, and in the absence of a huge contention, the results are also evident in the evening.
What happens if nobody can win the majority in the Selection Committee?
If none of the candidates can reach the absolute majority in the Selection Committee, the House of Representatives selects the president from among the three candidates with the highest number of votes in the general election.
The Senate also determines the vice-president among the remaining candidates.
This situation was encountered once in history. In 1824, Democrat candidate John Quincy Adams won the vote in the House of Representatives and became president.
What happens after the election?
After the election, a transition period begins. During this period, the new chairman is expected to establish his own team, start to receive information from senior officials on some issues and determine the details of the new program.
In cases where the current president is re-elected, the current policies and processes continue without interruption.
According to the Constitution, the term of the current or newly elected president officially begins with an oath ceremony on January 20.
After the ceremony, the chairman officially begins.