Paradoxes, which have been at the center of philosophical thought for centuries, allow us to interpret the situations we have always encountered differently. Thanks to paradoxes, we can also think that everything we know right is wrong. So what exactly is the paradox? We explained with examples that will challenge your mind.
History M. Ö. Although the concept of paradox dating back to the 5th century is a concept that is difficult to understand at first, it actually has a very simple definition.
So what is Paradox? Paradoxes are complex situations that create contradictions in common sense and leave suspicion about what we believe to be true. Although it seems correct and logical at first, more than one contradictory result emerges in a paradox . If you wish, let's reinforce the paradox with 10 examples that burn at least as much as their own meaning.
1. Achilles and turtle paradox:
This paradox is one of the paradoxes put forward by the Ancient Greek philosopher Zeno, which we mentioned above. Again, we do not know the invincible warrior Achilles who lived in the Ancient Greek period. He was famous for being fast and invincible as well as fast .
Now let's imagine that a turtle competes with a fast person like Achilles ... Almost all of us think that Achilles will finish this race ahead of time, but Zeno thinks differently than all of us. Zeno starts the turtle 500 meters ahead of Achilles to make the race fair . Therefore, we think that it will take a short time for Achilles to cover 500 meters with the turtle. However, Zeno argues that Achilles can never reach the turtle because the turtle will always be one step ahead after Achilles has completed 500 meters .
When Achilles goes 100 meters every 10 seconds, you would theoretically think that it will close 500 meters after 50 seconds. At this time, however, the turtle itself is moving forward. According to Zeno, the gap between Achilles and the tortoise never closes, although it decreases each time. In fact, the competition between these two is starting to get out of a race and take the situation of "Achilles catching the distance of the turtle". In this paradox, Zeno argues that an infinite loop can occur in any situation, no matter how short the distances are , rather than comparing the paradox in speed and distance .
2. Bootstrap Paradox
The paradox of destiny is a paradox that questions how an object taken from the future and placed in the past by the time travel emerged in the first place. This paradox , often inspired by science fiction writers , has been the subject of movies and series such as Doctor Who, Bill and Ted.
Now let's imagine that you are a time traveler ... Take a Hamlet book written by Shakespeare from a bookstore and think that you have gone to the past ... Assume that you have handed the book he wrote to Shakespeare, and you said "I am your future state." Shakespeare also has the book in your hand. Let him publish and earn fame when the time comes.
3. Right and wrong paradox
Imagine having a card in your palm ... There is the phrase "The sentence on the other side of this card is correct" on the A side of the card. On the other side, B, "The sentence on the other side of this card is wrong". If we consider that the A or B face of the card reflects the truth , we are in an infinite paradox.
The right and wrong paradox is actually a simple version of the concept known as the "false paradox" . This paradox tells us how to enter into an endless contradiction , when we attach meaning to expressions that advocate accuracy and wrong .
4. Crocodile paradox
A crocodile catches a boy playing by the river. The boy's mother starts begging crocodile to get her son back, and the crocodile says to her mother, "If you can guess whether I'm going to leave her child back, I'll give her back to you." The poor mother starts to cry because I know she will eat my son .
The prediction made by the mother is correct because the crocodile will eat the child. Since the guess is correct, the crocodile must give the child back to his mother . But if the child does not eat, the mother will be unfair, and the crocodile will remain. What do you think the crocodile should do?
5. The dichotomy paradox
Imagine you are walking on a street and set a destination for yourself . To get to your destination, you must first complete half the road . To complete half of the road, you have to complete a quarter of that road , to complete a quarter, you have to complete one-eight of the road , and so on. You cannot complete the road like Aşıl, who tries to catch up with the turtle.
As a result, even to perform a simple action like walking, you must first complete an unlimited number of small tasks , which is completely impossible . Since every first distance you go is divided into two, your starting point disappears and you will never start the journey.
6. Ok paradox
The arrow paradox, one of Zeno's paradoxes, argues that the movement consists of an illusion . Imagine an arrow flying out of a bow. To assume that the arrow is moving, the arrow must be in a position at any time in time . However, the "moment" is what we call time to act is read at a certain point there is no and always still remain. Thus, the arrow actually does not move at all and what we see is an illusion.
7. Hempel paradox
The concept of induction destroyed the paradox that Hempel, Carl Hempel all of raven black argue that. However, there are two ways we can understand that all ravens are black. First; seeing as many ravens as we can see and making sure they are all black, and the second is to look for raven by looking at non-black objects or animals.
Suppose you have a red apple in your hand, this apple is not a raven because it is not black and supports Hempel's theory. Likewise, the blackness of the raven put in front of your window supports Hempel's theory. However, the complete demonstrability of this theory, which was put forward without fulfilling the conditions mentioned above, disappears.
8. The Cretan paradox
The Cretan philosopher Epimenides, by saying “All Cretans are liars”, suggested the perhaps most challenging paradox in history. Considering that Epimenides is Cretan, we need to think that Epimendes is a liar because of the expression "All Cretans are liars".
If Epimenides is not a liar, we should think that not all Cretans are liars. However, when we think of what he says from the beginning, we are in an infinite paradox.
9. The paradox of the lawyer
A young lawyer applies for an internship alongside a world-renowned lawyer for his first work experience . The only condition of the world-renowned lawyer is that the young lawyer must give him the money for the first case won . The young lawyer accepts this condition, but the internship period breaks the close agreement . The world-famous lawyer filed for compensation and confronts the dual judge.
In the world-famous lawyer defense , he says that if he wins this case , he will receive the money himself , but even if he loses the case, he says that the money must be paid again, as it will be the first case that the young lawyer will win . The young lawyer says that this case is very unnecessary because if he wins the case, the money he will pay to the lawyer will not come out of his pocket, and if he loses the case, he will not have to pay any money according to the agreement he made with the lawyer. Who do you think should be right and what should be the judge's decision?
10. Moral paradox
The controls of a train imagine that your hand. There is a train approaching and five people stand on the tracks . If you press the button in front of you, the train will change the rails. However, when you look at the other track, you see that there is a person there.
If you do nothing, five people will die, but if you press the button, only one person will die, but you will be responsible for that person's death . What would your decision be?
As you can see, all paradoxes are actually possibilities that we will encounter in life. Of course, the race with a turtle and Achilles is not a realistic possibility, but we are like Achilles because we are constantly trying to catch up in life. No matter how simple or challenging the target is, Achilles shows us that speed doesn't matter.